Top 5 Data Points
- Eliminating School Discipline Disparities: What We Know and Don’t Know About the Effectiveness of Alternatives to Suspension and Expulsion: “Research on school discipline disparities has demonstrated three key trends across the country:  Black students are more likely than White students to be referred for disciplinary action for subjective infractions such as disruption or defiance compared to objective infractions such as tardiness or truancy.  Black students are more likely than White students to receive harsher consequences for disciplinary infractions, even when committing similar offenses.  Discipline disparities are driven by classroom teachers’ decisions to refer a student for disciplinary action and by school administrators’ decisions in response to those referrals. Racial stereotyping can influence these referrals.” (internal citations omitted)
- An Overview of Exclusionary Discipline Practices in Public Schools for the 2017-18 School Year: “Black girls received in-school suspensions (11.2%) and out-of-school suspensions (13.3%) at rates almost two times their share of total student enrollment (7.4%)…Black boys received both in-school suspensions (20.1%) and out-of-school suspensions (24.9%) suspensions at rates more than three times their share of total student enrollment (7.7%)—the largest disparity across all race/ethnicity and sex groupings.” (p.17)
- An Overview of Exclusionary Discipline Practices in Public Schools for the 2017-18 School Year: “Students with disabilities served under IDEA represented 13.2% of total student enrollment but received 20.5% of one or more in-school suspensions and 24.5% of one or more out-of school suspensions.” (p.18)
- Can Restorative Practices Improve School Climate and Curb Suspensions? An Evaluation of the Impact of Restorative Practices in a Mid-Sized Urban School District: “This study of the implementation of restorative practices in the Pittsburgh Public Schools district (PPS) in school years 2015–16 and 2016–17…found that [program implementation] achieved several positive effects, including an improvement in overall school climates (as rated by teachers), a reduction in overall suspension rates, and a reduction in the disparities in suspension rates between African American and white students and between low- and higher-income students.”
- Bringing Evidence-Based Decision-Making to School Safety: “[T]he evidence reviewed in this brief covers a broad range of studies of the effects of police presence in schools and the racial disproportionality of those effects, and of studies that provide guidance for identifying evidence-based school safety strategies.” (p.2) “Research consistently places practices to improve mental health as well as social and emotional skills at the center of evidence-based school safety interventions…. Strong information-gathering and information-sharing protocols, coupled with a culture of caring, are necessary for proactively monitoring the school climate and identifying students who need targeted mental health supports.” (p.4)
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