How New York City is Meeting the Varied Needs of Out-of-School Youth through Multiple Pathways to Graduation

How New York City is Meeting the Varied Needs of Out-of-School Youth through Multiple Pathways to Graduation
How New York City is Meeting the Varied Needs of Out-of-School Youth through Multiple Pathways to Graduation

Cross-System Collaboration to Serve Disconnected Youth with Suzanne Lynn, Deputy Commissioner for Community Development, Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD); Kristin Morse, Director of Evaluation, Center for Economic Opportunity; and Peter Kleinbard, Youth Development Institute

This panel provided information on cross-system collaborations and city-wide initiatives to serve disconnected youth.

Suzanne Lynn of the Department of Youth and Community Development (DYCD) described their work as overseeing community development efforts in poor communities via social services, with a special emphasis on youth. DYCD works as the nexus of economic development and social services, managing after-school programs, the Beacons program (school-based community centers for children, youth and families that are open after school, evenings and weekends), and the city’s youth employment efforts. In New York City, the responsibility for workforce-funded programs is split between Small Business Services and DYCD. Youth-focused workforce programs are the responsibility of DYCD as youth benefit from programs organized around youth development principles.  In the past few years, the City’s efforts to address youth employment have increased.  For instance, DYCD offers a seven-week, paid summer program to 40,000 youth each summer, most of them in school.  Lynn acknowledged that this initiative alone cannot fill the need for jobs; last year 93,000 applications for the internship program were submitted.  Another program available to in-school youth who distinguish themselves is the Ladders for Leaders program, which provides private sector internships developed by DYCD.

Lynn shared that the presence of 107,000 disconnected youth ages 16 to 21 amounts to “a longstanding crisis that threatens the economic future of New York.”  Programs specifically for disconnected youth include: a Young Adult Internship Program (YAIP), which is available for youth between the ages of 16 and 24 who read at a sixth grade level or above, and are relatively job-ready.  Students spend two to four weeks at a job-readiness orientation and 10 to 12 weeks at the internship with the hope that they will obtain a full-time job, resume their education, or enter occupational training. Currently, 1,400 youth per year are involved in this project, which is part of the Mayor’s broad anti-poverty initiative—the Center on Economic Opportunity.

To better serve this population, DYCD is working to become more collaborative across agencies. As part of its WIA-funded Out-of-School Youth program, and in collaboration with the City University of New York (CUNY), DYCD provided seed funds for CUNY Prep, a program for dropouts who have a ninth-grade reading level to work towards a GED. Upon receipt of a GED, CUNY Prep graduates are guaranteed a slot in the CUNY community college system.   DYCD is also currently working with other city agencies such as the Fire Department and Housing Preservation and Development to identify careers with city government that would be appropriate for disconnected youth.

Kristin Morse from the Center for Economic Opportunity conveyed that the Center, in collaboration with 20 city agencies, coordinates the city’s anti-poverty strategies, which are targeted at serving the working poor, young adults and young children. This work is an integral part of the city’s new anti-poverty campaign, launched two years ago in response to a slow increase in poverty rates. Upon establishing that poverty was concentrated in specific neighborhoods, targeted programs were introduced in Upper Manhattan, South Bronx, and Central Brooklyn. In 2006, the Center was created with a $150 million annual innovations fund; $67 million in new money from the city; $11 million for multiple pathways from the Department of Education; $25 million in private money to fund incentives; $42 million from the child care tax credit fund; and $7 million from state and federal funds. The Center’s work with young adults takes three forms: preventative strategies, reengaging disconnected youth, and targeting high-risk groups, such as students emerging from detention or foster care. Preventative strategies include multiple pathways to graduation, service learning programs, and community programs with City University of New York. Reengaging youth is accomplished through CUNY Prep and CUNY Catch as well as the Young Adult Internship Program and Civic Justice Corps. High risk students are assisted by work programs that include financial literacy and individual education accounts. Currently, there are about 100 youth involved in these programs as they are all relatively new.

Peter Kleinbard spoke about The Youth Development Institute, which was established in 1991, and has assisted in the development of Beacons, small schools, and building the capacity of community organizations to serve students who have dropped out. He commented that the research conducted by the New York City Department of Education was particularly helpful in identifying different groups within the disconnected youth population and has helped the Institute focus its work. The Institute’s most effective efforts have been through community based organizations (CBOs), who have a long-standing commitment to youth. The Institute functions as an intermediary, helping schools and CBOs work together. This is a capacity that has developed over time, and the results can be seen at the transfer schools (small, academically rigorous, full-time high schools for students who have been enrolled in high school for at least one year and are far from promoting on grade level), which often have higher graduation rates than regular schools.  The Youth Development Institute has established another model, Community Education Pathways to Success, which began with three sites and now numbers 10. This program is for students who could not get into a GED program or who are reading below ninth-grade level and has three core elements: youth development, a rigorous instruction model (America’s Choice), and structured case management. While initial results are promising, the challenge of operating the program without a dedicated funding stream remains.  During the ensuing discussion participants asked about the importance of intermediaries and identification of disconnected youth. Panelists noted the challenge some intermediaries face in not having sufficient clout to assemble larger service providers and systems, while also acknowledging that intermediaries can play an important role by conducting research or holding the vision for reform. In response to the query about how disconnected youth were identified and recruited, panelists emphasized that the work is conducted by CBOs, whose staff attend basketball games, night events, and church services to reach youth, and they also use fliers on the streets and make connections with multi-service centers to identify youth. In conclusion, participants were encouraged to ruminate on the importance of public/private relations with the business community, as well as the role of intermediaries.

Panel: District Role in Establishing Multiple Pathways with JoEllen Lynch, CEO, Partnership Support Office, Department of Education; and Leah Hamilton, Director, Office of Multiple Pathways to Graduation, Department of Education

This panel discussed in greater depth the work of the New York City Department of Education in identifying and serving disconnected youth, particularly those who are over-age and under-credited.

The Office of Multiple Pathways to Graduation (OMPG) was established in October 2005 to target the over-age and under-credited (OA/UC) high school student population, those most at risk for dropping out, with a portfolio of schools and programs tailored to student need and designed to bring students to New York State graduation standards.  This work is an outgrowth of the DOE’s commitment to bring all students to graduation, as first articulated in the 2002 Children First Reform agenda.  In addition, the new Learning to Work Initiative was embedded in these schools and programs as a way to collaborate with CBOs, and leverage their youth development expertise and larger resource network on behalf of overage and under-credited students.

In order to define the target population, the Department engaged in a major research effort with the Parthenon Group. The research included profiles of the target groups and identification of effective options. The following graphic best summarizes the over-age, under-credited population, which is approximately 140,000 students in New York City:  Armed with a wide range of information about the students, including age and credit attainment, the Department was able to consider the types of models needed to serve these various student populations.  The following is a description of some of the models and programs in the portfolio created by the Office of Multiple Pathways to Graduation (OMPG):

Young Adult Borough Centers: YABCs are supportive learning environments designed for students who have been in high school for at least four years and have attained a minimum of 17 credits. The instructional model allows students to concentrate only on the credit portfolio they need for graduation through a non-traditional block schedule. Each YABC is operated through a collaborative partnership between the Department of Education (DOE) and a CBO, which provides services to students, including youth development support, career and college counseling, and assistance with job placement. Students attend YABCs through a shared instructional model and receive a diploma from their high school of origin upon completion of their credits and Regents exams, tests required to earn a high school diploma in New York State.

Transfer Schools: Transfer Schools are small, academically rigorous, full-time high schools for students who have been enrolled in high school for at least one year and are far from promoting on grade level. Essential elements include a personalized learning environment, rigorous academic standards, student-centered pedagogy, support to meet instructional and developmental goals, and a focus on connections to college.

Blended GED Programs: OMPG’s GED Programs, which are blended with a Learning to Work component, prepare students for the GED and support them in developing meaningful postsecondary connections. In September 2006, OMPG launched Access, a full-time GED program, which includes a youth development approach, integrated thematic units, developmental portfolios, innovative systems for student engagement, assessment, and progression, connections to postsecondary training, and in-depth career exploration. The Learning to Work part-time GED programs use research-based instructional practices, such as a workshop model coupled with high-quality curriculum materials.

Learning to Work: Learning to Work (LTW) is designed to help students stay engaged in school by developing the skills they need to complete high school, gain employment, and succeed in postsecondary education. LTW services are provided by CBO partners and are integrated across Multiple Pathways schools and programs, including Transfer Schools, GED programs, and YABCs. LTW students have the opportunity to participate in intensive employability skills development workshops, subsidized internships, college and career counseling, and job placement. The program also includes attendance outreach, individual and group counseling, academic tutoring, and youth development supports.

Leah Hamilton believes in the data inquiry model created by New York City. She stated that “data is a fact base to build a case and internal advocacy tool.”  Hamilton described the available data in additional detail as the population is slightly more male and 14% more Hispanic and Black.

Data collection has demonstrated the success of the portfolio of OMPG schools and programs:

  • Transfer schools are graduating 56% of the overage, under-credited students that come to them, compared to 19% of OA/UC students in large articulated high schools. As Transfer Schools seem to be effective with this population, OMPG plans to expand them, build their capacity and find more partners.
  • Early results for the YABCs are promising.  YABCs need to be evaluated and modified for continuous quality improvement.
  • OMPG is working to recreate the GED curriculum, embedded with the Learning to Work curriculum and rigorous academics connected to postsecondary education. OMPG is committed to creating these programs, as quality options for students at risk for aging out of the system without graduating or earning a credential.

Yet, the challenge to New York City is that 140,000 students at any time are overage, under-credited. Hamilton said New York City is up to the challenge and “the recuperative and preventative strategies work together to reduce dropouts in general.”

During the question and answer period, participants quizzed the panelists on some of the mechanics of the data collections efforts, especially the funding sources. New York City was able to use funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation as well as services from the Parthenon Group to coordinate the efforts. When asked about the role of the federal government, Hamilton stated, “There are lots of levers that you can pull locally before considering federal reforms.”

Operating with the philosophy that the unit of change was the school, small schools emerged as a preventive strategy that empowered the principal and teachers to create an educational program to serve their students. JoEllen Lynch stated, “We believe the problem is that the school does not fit the kids, rather than the kids not fitting the school.”

Site Visit to West Brooklyn Community High School

West Brooklyn Community High School is a small transfer school jointly operated by the NYC Department of Education and Good Shepherd Services, the partner CBO. The school has an enrollment of 200 students, many of whom have a history of truancy or have previously dropped out of school. Students may apply who are 16-21 years of age and have been enrolled in high school for at least one year.  Participants met with students, toured the school, visited classrooms, and conversed with the principal and Good Shepherd staff members. Students emphasized how much better their current school was compared to their previous school. In their previous schools, students described how they were simply expected to follow rules, and “none of the learning was sticking.”  The admissions process at West Brooklyn is a comprehensive intake process which requires student and parent interviews, including signing documents related to expectations.  Support structures include mandatory early morning tutoring for students in preparation for the Regents examinations and counseling and support from caring adults. One student noted that “I’m getting helped by my counselor every day.”  Another noted that teachers took responsibility for altering their lessons if students experienced comprehension difficulties, rather than expecting students to change. The staff member present commented that Learning to Work dollars were critical in getting additional money to the school. And, with private fundraising, West Brooklyn was able to reduce the ratio between students and counselors to 25 to 1, even though the per pupil cost remains high at approximately $10,000 per student.  The extent to which the school is jointly and seamlessly operated was evident in students’ inability to discern which staff members ‘belonged’ to the teaching staff and which were affiliated with Good Shepherd Services. Good Shepherd oversees the admissions process and provides advocate counselors to each student, while the teaching staff, employees of the Department of Education, focuses on instruction. There are 17 teachers and eight advocate counselors in the school. However, students stated that all adults in the building were responsive to their needs. In classroom visits, participants witnessed teachers’ higher level questions eliciting higher order responses. Teachers made frequent connections to students’ lives, resulting in animated discussions.  The visit concluded with a discussion with the principal, who shared that the Department of Education was supportive in providing resources and creating professional development opportunities. Other supports include a literacy, math, art literacy, and science coach. The principal enjoys some flexibility in the hiring process. While staff recruitment the first year was characterized by a pool of viable candidates, the increase in new transfer schools has generated more competition for staff. West Brooklyn offers weekly professional development to all staff as a benefit and to ensure they are constantly improving to serve their students’ needs.  The school is grappling with smoothing the transition for students from a highly supportive environment to the college milieu.  This transition is being assisted by two staff members who are Good Shepherd Services employees, and they work with students on College Access and Retention. The school has also deviated from its original intention of only accepting students with at least eight credits to accepting student with zero credits.

Site Visit to John Adams High School Young Adult Borough Center (YABC)

John Adams YABC is a late afternoon and evening program, which opened in fall 2005 and was designed to serve older students (17.5-21 years old) who have been in high school for at least four years and have earned at least 17 high school credits. The YABC operates in partnership with Queens Community House (QCH), a local settlement house, a neighborhood-based organization that provides services and activities designed to identify and reinforce the strengths of individuals, families, and communities. The YABC has an ongoing enrollment of 250-300 students who are working to earn a high school diploma.

Participants were greeted by Assistant Principal Edita Volovodovskaya, who stressed the real cooperation that existed between the YABC and Queens Community House. The YABC addresses students’ diverse learning styles through project-based learning, technology-based programs, the ability to submit work online, and to acquire entrepreneur training, such as music production skills. The academic program includes core classes, Regents preparatory classes, College Now, Academic Accelerated Studies Center, Independent Studies option, Learning to Work, Community Action Program, Friday Program, and Saturday School. Afternoon and evening classes are provided up to 6 days a week with three, 1½ hour classes offered per night, so that “school” runs from 4:20 – 8:52pm. The YABC is a program, not a school, and thus students transfer into the program and then back to their home school for graduation, once they have completed their requirements.  There is an emphasis on creating community, through all the staff being available to students and participation in an online student community. The flexibility of the online component of the school allows many students whose schedules no longer permit them to be on campus to stay on track to graduation.  They can do make-up work but they still must attend to fulfill the 54 hour seat requirement.  The assistant director of Queens Community House reiterated that the program offers a “Primary Person Model” with each counselor provided by the QCH having a caseload of 45-50 students. Staff meet with each student individually once a month, and are also available for consultation in the interim and to assist students with career plans. QCH pays students minimum wage as they conduct their internships, which take place at local businesses. Students unready for the work experience can participate in on-site internships, which are more nurturing, such as MouseSquad, which helps to repair computers on campus. Through the Learning to Work program, students attend work readiness seminars to prepare for their internship experiences.  Participants heard from a panel of students, who shared the difference between their previous high schools and the YABC:  their former institutions were overcrowded, and students needed an appointment to consult with a counselor. At the YABC, “they concentrate on you,” and “you can discuss personal issues with a counselor.”  Many students stressed that this was “a second chance for me,” and “it gets you ready for the future, career-wise.”  They liked schedules that accommodated their varied commitments and permitted them to take exactly the classes they needed. Students shared postsecondary plans focused on going to college to pursue various degrees.

Dinner Speaker: Michele Cahill, Carnegie Corporation of New York

Michele Cahill, who served as a pivotal player in the revamped New York City Department of Education as Senior Counselor to the Chancellor for Education Policy, and is currently at the Carnegie Corporation, framed her remarks by stressing the importance of building on the strengths and assets of young people. “We have to build a sense of optimism and resilience,” she emphasized, noting that the lens of high school reform is urgent as we are living in a different world characterized by the impact of globalization on the labor market. “Educational attainment is the currency of mobility,” she observed, noting that, while the rest of the world is experiencing rapid change in secondary education, the U.S. remains stagnant and complacent, resulting in greater social inequity.   In her work in New York City, Cahill realized that inequity had to be addressed, and everyone had to be brought to the level of college preparedness. Thus, the New York City Department of Education (DOE) consciously committed to raise the graduation rate, and set measurable outcomes. This process began by thinking of the large school system of 300,000 high school students not as a school system, but rather a system of schools – which meant that every school had to be a good school. In addition to setting high standards for all, New York City learned from the research related to small schools and youth development, which emphasized the critical importance of strong leaders, accountability, assessment,caring relationships with adults, and engaging youth in demanding activities. Thus, one of the first reforms undertaken was to phase out the 21 high schools that were graduating fewer than 45% of students and replace them by opening 200 new small schools that would be planned and developed by teams of educators and community partners. At the same time, the DOE augmented the new, small schools with expanded options, including opening new transfer schools and Young Adult Borough Centers to re-engage those students who were overage and under-credited (disconnected and seriously off-track for graduation) in planning their futures and graduating from high school, meeting the same standards for a diploma as comprehensive and small schools require . Cahill commented on the need to measure competencies over seat time, especially as the kinds of competencies that all students must now develop – high levels of communications skills, quantitative literacy and reasoning, and critical-thinking – demand new instructional and school design strategies. Cahill also spoke to the need to build systems that make the pathways to graduation more fluid. She cited the example of Finland, where the immigrant population’s needs are more successfully addressed, where one out of seven teachers is an intervention teacher, catching up those students who are falling behind, and where achievement outcomes are more important than how much time is spent in school. The impact of technology and increasing civic engagement of high school students should also drive redesign, she added.  Cahill concluded her remarks by reiterating that youth development is not a program, but a lens – and this lens needs to be driven into the federal conversation by asking questions such as: “What will this mean for a young person if we do this?” and “Does it create more or fewer supports and opportunities for the young people to reach the high levels of academic preparation and personal and social skills required for the 21st century?”  She observed that if the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) 4 year graduation accountability indicator was applied to the schools participants had visited, they would be designated as failing schools; whereas, these schools have strong graduation outcomes for their students who, however, come to these schools after already being in high school for more than one or two years and failing or disconnecting in their first high school.  Cahill made the point that she thought that school systems needed to own the kind of accountability for graduation that NCLB aimed for but that systems needed the opportunity to also create new types of schools using the successful models of transfer schools and YABCs and that this demands some revisions within the NCLB approach.  Finally, she offered advice on how to ensure ongoing systemic change: by electing a mayor who will support positive outcomes for youth, by being transparent about what that means, and by embedding the changes, so that it is hard to turn the clock back. Ultimately, Cahill stressed the importance of all youth-serving agencies valuing high school graduation, and aligning their work to ensure this outcome for many more youth.

Site Visit to Manhattan Hunter Science High School

This early college high school opened in September 2003 in partnership with Hunter College. The school offers an enriched, rigorous, college preparatory curriculum with a focus on science. Students acquire the habits of successful college students through direct experience in college courses, primarily during their senior year.  The principal, Susan Kreisman, welcomed participants, stating that in June 2007, this high school gradated its first class:  “Every student graduated and all are going to college.”  This epitomized the school’s focus on individual needs, which are attended to by a professional staff (teachers, counselors and administrators), who total 30 individuals.  While all take a personal interest in the students, there are four whose primary expertise is in guidance and/or social work.  “No one is anonymous,” Kreisman conveyed. Each teacher takes charge of 12 students, and the relationships these teachers form with students are as important as academics. Students are further assisted by a school social worker who jointly works with families.   Partnerships are an integral part of the way the school functions. The school’s close partnership with Hunter College, a four-year institution in the City College of New York (CUNY) system, is exemplified by the personal interest exhibited by Jennifer Raab, the president of Hunter College, and the university’s infusion of brainpower, support, and facilities. Seniors from the high school spend the entire senior year on Hunter’s campus and are taught some subjects by high school teachers in configurations that mirror college classes. Students take math and science courses with the college student body and receive additional support from high school teachers who have offices on the Hunter campus. The rigorous, college-preparatory curriculum was evident during classroom visits to the classes for 9-11 graders, where students were engaged in high level thinking, spurred on by teachers with high expectations and penetrating questions.

During a discussion time with the principal and representatives from CUNY, the topics of teacher selection, student selection, and college readiness were addressed. The principal seeks teachers who are “bright, open, constant learners, and collegial,” not necessarily individuals possessing a discrete body of knowledge. As this is a screened school, the principal has some choice in selecting students. The school’s mission is to take average and below average students, with good attendance records. Most students come from the borough of Manhattan and currently there is not a large special education or English language learner population. The application to the school includes a recent report card, an essay delineating why science is important, and two letters of recommendation. College readiness is illustrated by a junior year college search by each student, identification of possible schools to attend, and Manhattan Hunter school-sponsored exploration day trips. During their senior year, students spend the year on Hunter’s campus, aided by a June orientation and ongoing support from two teachers from the high school who emphasize that “college is in your path.”  As long as students maintain a ‘C” and above in their college courses, they can accumulate Hunter College credits. The success of the model was attested to by former high school students who are now at Hunter College, who commented that they feel adjusted, noting “we have a leg up on the other freshmen.”

Lessons Learned, In Brief

Throughout the trip, participants had opportunities to debrief and reflect upon the information presented and sites visited. As some of the sessions were shared with a group of municipal-level teams who were beginning to think about how to work across systems to better serve disconnected youth in their own communities, there was an opportunity to reflect upon the role of local leaders and the federal government to work together to address issues related to disconnected youth. The lessons described below highlight both participant takeaways as well as strategies to consider as the work moves forward.

Youth Development

Over and over again, presenters emphasized that the principles of youth development are what make their programs successful with disconnected youth. Presenters advocated for infusing educational and training programs with well-documented youth development practices such as relationships with caring adults, supportive environments that value youth voice, and opportunities for youth to contribute. This approach views these youth people as assets, rather than deficits and instills a sense of hope in young people who previously have been underserved or overlooked by the traditional system. Using youth development principles as the building blocks of education and training programs means that the fundamental method for doing business must be re-evaluated so that young people and their needs drive the organization and structure.

Track credits, not years for high school students

In New York City, participants learned about the city’s effort to better serve overage, under-credited students who are the largest percentage of NYC’s high school dropouts. Since these young people were off track to receiving a high school diploma in the typical four-year timeframe, dropping out often seemed like their most viable option. District and school leaders emphasized that rethinking the traditional route of a high school diploma in terms of credits, not years to degree, allowed them to create educational programs to provide these young people with an educational credential (high school diploma or GED). New York City is not unique is this approach to rethinking the traditional time to degree approach, but it is evident that it is one of the important strategies that has allowed the city to reconnect with these young people.

Accountability and Flexibility

The federal government needs to continue to hold schools accountable and to emphasize high expectations, but they need to simultaneously give schools flexibility to meet these standards. Particularly as Congress considers the reauthorization of NCLB, the high expectations for all young people set as a goal in the legislation is an excellent standard for schools to work towards meeting, but they must not be constrained by traditional models or methodologies. There is clear evidence that the innovative schools and programs in New York City are successfully serving overage, under-credited students, but failing on the traditional measures set by NCLB. As previously discussed, the flexibility of re-evaluating the traditional model of four years of high school as a measure of school success would significantly help these programs.

Participants Takeaways

Here are some remarks from trip participants that summarize their lessons learned and reflections from the visit to New York City:

  • The most important lesson I learned was the need for sustained, high-level leadership to create policies for disengaged youth. I think the strongest argument that can be made on behalf of such policies (at least from a policymakers’ perspective) is the need for all youth to successfully make the transition to adulthood so they can become contributing taxpayers, parents, and citizens. Another key takeaway was the importance of individualized support and instruction for students. The peer-advocate/principle (?) person model was used across all of the programs, and appeared to keep youth better connected to school.
  • The “overage and under-credited” perspective on “at-risk” youth was a very meaningful construct to help me understand the drop out problem and how schools and cities can tailor programs to address these challenges.
  • Reinforced that leadership at the schools (principals, administrators) are incredibly important for successful reform programs.
  • That we need to think outside of the box and that one size does not fit all. Schools need autonomy and flexibility if we truly are going to meet students at their level and prepare them to become citizens of tomorrow.
  • That we (Congress, our individual cities, government agencies) need to concentrate our efforts and enable districts like NYC to take advantage of the momentum they have to improve educational attainment and job training for out-of-school and at-risk youth.
  • I appreciated seeing education innovation and knowing what school systems are doing to address these challenges. These different models being implemented by NYC schools have the potential to be replicated and utilized by many schools across the country. This has opened my eyes up to this type of educational reality.


Background Material on Disconnected Youth

New York City

Handouts/Materials from Trip

The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF), a nonprofit, nonpartisan professional development organization based in Washington, DC, provides learning opportunities for policy leaders, practitioners, and researchers working on youth and education issues at the national, state, and local levels.

AYPF’s events and policy reports are made possible by the support of a consortium of philanthropic foundations: Carnegie Corporation of New York, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, WT Grant Foundation, James Irvine Foundation, C.S. Mott Foundation, and others.


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The American Youth Policy Forum (AYPF), a nonprofit, nonpartisan professional development organization based in Washington, DC, provides learning opportunities for policy leaders, practitioners, and researchers working on youth and education issues at the national, state, and local levels. AYPF events and publications are made possible by contributions from philanthropic foundations. For a complete list, click here.